Image depicting an elderly woman staring at her prescription bottle on the left, & a Pharmacist talking on the phone on the right.


How often has this happened to you: You pick up a prescription at the pharmacy & later realize you have questions about something in the directions or warnings. Or you buy an over-the-counter (OTC) drug but aren’t sure about the correct dosage after reading the label.

That’s where pharmacists come in. Whether at your local pharmacy or the U.S. Food & Drug Administration, pharmacists help patients achieve the best possible outcome when taking drugs. 

Pharmacists can help people take their medicine properly & continue to take it for as long as recommended. For example, they can answer questions about other drugs & foods that can cause an interaction & advise you to consult with your health care provider when your usual medication is unavailable.

Pharmacists are a bridge between the patient & their prescriber. They are experts at interpreting information for patients.

What Your Pharmacist Should Know

“Help your pharmacist get to know you & what questions you have,” says pharmacist Mary E. Kremzner, a public health expert at the FDA. “Pharmacists really want to help people get the maximum benefit from the drugs they need to take, with the least amount of risk.”

For example, some large pills are hard to swallow. “The pharmacist will know the drug’s makeup & whether you can crush it without changing how it works,” Kremzner says.

Another risk is interactions – food-drug or drug-drug. “For example, if you take a statin to lower your cholesterol, you might need to avoid drinking large amounts of grapefruit juice because it can make some drugs too powerful, even toxic,” says pharmacist Lindsay Wagner, a public health expert at the FDA. “However, the strength of the interaction varies among drugs. If grapefruit juice is part of your daily routine, your pharmacist can recommend that you consult with your health care provider about an alternative so you can enjoy your juice safely.”

Let your pharmacist know what questions you have about the information you’ve received. This includes the instructions from your prescriber, information you received from the pharmacy, or articles you’ve read online. Conflicting advice & information can leave anyone confused. 

Misinformation can add to the confusion. Many people who share misinformation don’t realize the information is false. Misinformation can come from people you know, like your friends & family, making it especially difficult to tell truth from fiction. Pharmacists are there to help sort through what you’ve heard. 

“We’re here to help. We do our best to answer every question & help consumers find trustworthy & credible sources for information,” Wagner says.

Your pharmacist should know:

  • Everything you take for your health. All medications you take (prescription & nonprescription) as well as all vitamins & supplements.
  • Your medical history & experience with medications, including allergic reactions & side effects.
  • If you are pregnant or breastfeeding (nursing).
  • If you have trouble swallowing pills, opening bottles, reading labels, or remembering when to take your medicine.
  • Questions you have about what you’ve been told or read online about your medication.

How FDA Pharmacists Can Help

Call your local pharmacist or the FDA’s drug information pharmacists if you have questions after receiving a medicine.

The FDA’s Division of Drug Information (DDI) is home to a staff of pharmacists who respond to questions about human drugs for the U.S. public. DDI gets several hundred calls & emails each day, with more than half of them from consumers.

FDA pharmacists can even help you identify a tablet or pill. For example, there may be many different approved generics that can be substituted for one brand-name drug, & their tablets can look different.

“Generic drugs can vary in size, shape, & color & still be the same medicine,” Kremzner says. “That can be confusing to some people. When in doubt, call your local pharmacist or the FDA if you have questions about whether they are the same product. We also can help you understand the medications you’re taking.”

What Consumers Ask the FDA

When in doubt, reach out to us & ask. Here are some of the top questions DDI pharmacists answer.

Q. What are the possible side effects of my medicine, & how can I report my experience to the FDA? 

A. Approved drugs have benefits as well as side effects, which are listed in the drug’s labeling. If you didn’t receive a printout with your medication, you can find the labeling online from Drugs@FDA or For OTC drugs, you can find side effects in the “Drug Facts” labeling printed on the outer wrapper or container of the drug.

To report a side effect or medication error, use the FDA’s MedWatch Safety Information & Adverse Event Reporting Program:

  • Complete & submit the report online.
  • Download the form or call 1-800-332-1088 to request a reporting form sent to you in the mail, then complete & return to the address on the form, or submit it by fax to 1-800-FDA-0178.

Q. Where can I find credible information online about my medications & health?

A. The FDA website offers credible & trustworthy information about prescription & OTC drugs. Medline Plus ( is a health information resource for consumers that provides high-quality, trusted information. 

Q. Are generic drugs the same as brand-name drugs?

A. Yes. Federal law requires generic drugs to be the same as brand-name drugs. They are as safe & effective & meet the same quality standards as brand-name drugs. They are the same in the way they work, the way they are taken, & the way they should be used. Generics also reach the site of action in the body at the same rate & extent as the brand-name drugs.

Q. Will this treatment I read about online help or hurt me?

A. Health fraud scams will try to sell you treatments that are not proven to work & may cause serious or even fatal injuries. Scams are very common today, especially on social media. If you’re unsure, ask your local pharmacist or contact the FDA.

Q. How do I discard medicine I no longer need?

A. The best way to dispose of most types of unused or expired medicines is to drop off the medicine at a drug take back location immediately. Many pharmacies also serve as take back locations. 

Certain medicines should be flushed down the sink or toilet because they are especially harmful & can cause death in a single dose. Flushing medicines on the flush list helps make sure children, pets, or anyone else does not accidentally take the medicine. If you can’t get to a take back location & your medication is not on the flush list, you may be able to dispose of it safely in your household trash by following some simple instructions.

Stay Informed & Get Updates from the FDA

The FDA shares information about drugs through email updates & social media. Stay informed by following the FDA’s official Facebook account (, & DDI’s Twitter handle (@FDA_Drug_Info) & email alerts.

Subscribing to email alerts is easy, & there are many important topics.

How to Contact FDA’s Drug Information Pharmacists